Hypersonic cruise demands designs achievable only via multidisciplinary optimization techniques considering fully integrated propulsion systems. Additionally, environmental issues and thermal problems may require solutions using non-conventional flow-control techniques based on e.g. jet-spikes and magneto gas dynamics.
Heat flux reduction by shock manipulation using a magnet inside the nose of the vehicle;Pressure field without (top) and with (bottom) magnetic interaction; Embedded fig.: hypersonic head equipped with an electro-magnet for testing in the high enthalpy shock-tunnel Göttingen (HEG)